Protected beetles in the Netherlands (Coleoptera) The status of all by law protected beetles of the Netherlands is discussed. Several specimens of Cerambyx cerdo are known from the Netherlands, but all of these are considered to have been imported with oak-wood. Taking the European distribution into account it is supposed that Cerambyx cerdo once inhabited the Netherlands, but became extinct centuries ago as a result of the disappearance of suitable oak-trees. Both Osmoderma eremita and Dytiscus latissimus were very rare during the last two centuries. Only few specimens from isolated localities were collected in the 20th century, hence they are now considered extinct in the Netherlands. Graphoderus bilineatus was not uncommon in the beginning of the 20th century. Although it still occurs in a number of locations, especially in peat marshes, it has declined considerably. Lucanus cervus has been recorded for centuries from a few isolated localities. It is believed that Lucanus cervus has survived in the Netherlands in coppiced oak, in the absence of oak-trees dying naturally.