This book provides an up-to-date survey of the biodiversity of the Netherlands. The treatment of all taxonomic groups which occur in the Netherlands forms the core (chapter 5). Around 100 specialists contributed to this unique survey. The other chapters highlight many aspects of the Dutch biodiversity: natural history (chapter 2), research (chapter 3), classification (chapter 4), patterns (chapter 7), trends (chapter 8), government policy (chapter 10) and nature management (chapter 11). In this summary we focus on the taxonomic treatments. They show that even a small and geologically relatively young country such as the Netherlands, harbours an immense diversity in life forms.