In this paper we review the Raphitomidae of the Lower Piacenzian, Upper Pliocene of Estepona, southern Spain. Sixty-two species are recorded representing 21 genera and subgenera, of which 12 species are described as new: Clathromangelia acuticostata nov. sp., Clathromangelia mulderi sp. nov., Clathromangelia oliverioi sp. nov., Cyrillia clathrataeformis nov. sp., Cyrillia saldubensis nov. sp., Diaugasma mediterranea nov. sp., Microandonia minutissima nov. sp., Pleurotomella turrita nov. sp., Pleurotomella obesula nov. sp., Pseudodaphnella iberica nov. sp., Pseudodaphnella velerinensis nov. sp., Teretia inflatissima nov. sp., and one genus Microandonia nov. gen. Mangelia (Mangeliella) marcellinae Hornung, 1920 is considered a subjective junior synonym of Andonia bonellii (Bellardi & Michelotti, 1841). Homotoma raynevali Bellardi, 1877 is considered a subjective junior synonym of Cyrillia linearis (Montagu, 1803). Pleurotoma rochettae Bellardi, 1847, Pleurotoma subasperum Brugnone, 1862 and Gymnobela pelagia Vera-Peláez, 2002 are considered subjective junior synonyms of Gymnobela galerita (Philippi, 1844). Raphitoma (Leufroyia) guadalmansae Vera-Peláez, 2002 is considered a subjective junior synonym of Leufroyia leufroyi (Michaud, 1828). The assemblage shows a relatively high level of endemism (37%). Both shallow and deeper-water taxa are represented. The shallow water assemblage is similar to that found in the tropical Mediterranean Pliocene of Italy (MPPMU1); we note in these shallower facies the first record for the European Neogene of the genus Pseudodaphnella Boettger, 1895. The deeper-water assemblage is similar in generic composition to that recorded for the northeastern Atlantic coast of Lusitania and West Africa at greater depths but contains most of the endemic species. The strong predominance of planktotrophic-type protoconchs amongst the Estepona raphitomids is highlighted and we suggest that the emergence of non-planktotrophic forms in the Mediterranean is a relatively recent event, possibly driven by increasing areas of relative isolation within the Mediterranean since the Early Pliocene.

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Cainozoic research

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Bernard Landau, Mathias Harzhauser, & Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli. (2022). The Pliocene Gastropoda (Mollusca) of Estepona, southern Spain. Part 16: Raphitomidae (Gastropoda, Conoidea). Cainozoic research, 22(2), 157–240.