In the intertidal of the Dutch Wadden Sea of Texel, periwinkles Littorina littorea L. graze on the lichen Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) H.C. Harris, which lives boring in the older part of the living Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). After the death of the oyster the grazing continues and causes holes in the oyster shells and enhances their fragmentation and disappearance.


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Nederlandse Malacologische Vereniging

G.C. Cadée. (2013). Grazende alikruiken Littorinalittorea (Linnaeus, 1758) beschadigen de schelp van de Japanse oester Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg,1793). Spirula, 395, 164–166.