In the region of Zwolle lots of fossil remains of mammals were brought to the surface by sanddredgers from depths varying from 10-20 meters. The fossils appeared to be embedded in UpperPleistocene fluviatile deposits, the Formation of Kreftenheye, being composed of mainly coarse-grained sands. Because of the finding-circumstances it is impossible to ascertain the exact depth from which the findings derive. The following species were represented in the fossil remains: Castor fiber, Mammuthus primigenius, Equus spec. 1 and spec. 2, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Sus scrofa, Cervus (Megaceros) giganteus, Cervus elaphus, Alces alces, cf. Capreolus capreolus, Rangifer tarandus, Ovibos moschatus, Bison priscus and Bos primigenius. (table 1). The biotope-indications of the different species provide evidence that at least two faunas are represented in the material. One fauna consists of species living in open areas like a steppe, an open park landscape, or a tundra. These species probably lived in the Netherlands during periods with an arctic of sub-arctic climate. During the Late-Pleistocene such conditions prevailed in the LateSaalien, the stadials of the Early-Weichselien and the Pleniglacial time. Another fauna is represented by species which prefer a woody environment rich in water. A biotope like that can very well exist under the climatic conditions as they are at present in the Netherlands. During the Late-Pleistocene such conditions existed in the Netherlands during the Eemien interglacial period, the Amersfoort interstadial period, the Brørup interstadial period and the Odderade interstadial period (fig. 3). The consequence of finding fossil remains from different periods is that the fossils must have been dredged from different levels in the Kreftenheye-Formation, with a possible variation from the Late-Saalien deposits up to the aeolian deposits of the last cold phase of the Weichselien.

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Grondboor & Hamer

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Nederlandse Geologische Vereniging

H. Hidding. (1983). Fossiele resten van zoogdieren uit de Laat-Pleistocene sedimenten in de regio Zwolle. Grondboor & Hamer, 37(1), 8–16.