In this paper a survey is given of the nature and distribution of permafrost and its related geological and geomorphological processes and landforms. The terms continuous permafrost, discontinuous permafrost, offshore permafrost, active layer (fig. 2) and talik are explained. In addition, the occurence of solid ice layers in permafrost areas (fig. 3) and the origin of thermokarst phenomena due to the disturbance of the thermo-dynamic equilibrium is discussed (fig. 4). Some specific permafrost phenomena and processes are exemplified which are found also as Pleistocene permafrost relics in the Netherlands, such as: ice wedges and their related polygons (fig. 4 and 5), pingos and pingo remnants (fig. 6 en 7), and gelifluction. Finally some of the problems of human occupation in permafrost areas are discussed (fig. 8).

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Grondboor & Hamer

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Nederlandse Geologische Vereniging

W. de Gans. (1983). Permafrost en permafrostverschijnselen in arctische gebieden. Grondboor & Hamer, 37(6), 165–174.