It is described how the famous fossils of Pikermi (Attica, Greece) were collected during the first half of the 19th century by German and French scientific explorers such as Roth and Gaudry. In the same period the concept of nature gradually began to shift from the purely creational – via the idea of a series of unrelated creations separated by total annihilations – to a model involving lineages and finally to evolution. The fauna list presented is composed of those species that are considered specific to the Pikermi fauna and not to the far wider area of related Turolian (Late Miocene) faunas stretching as far as Iran. Part of the Pikermi fossils is now in the collection of the Teyler’s Museum at Haarlem. They were last determined by Dr. D.A. Hooijer.