Description are given of various fossil skulls belonging to woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.) and mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) which show traces of traumatic damage during life. These traces are discussed in comparison with some examples from extant rhinoceroses. Special attention is given to the role of environmental factors which might be related to the cause of the traumatic damage as observed in the fossil skulls.