Level TD6 of the Gran Dolina in the Sierra de Atapuerca has yielded over 80 remains of a new hominid species, Homo antecessor. The level is over 780,000 years old. Homo antecessor is the ancestor of both neanderthals and our own species. It occurred in Europe and probably also in Africa. Homo antecessor is characterized by the combination of a modern facial morphology and a primitive dentition. Neanderthals and Heidelberg Man have a more specialized facial morphology not yet developed in the hominid from TD6. Our own species has a more advanced dentition than Homo antecessor. Homo erectus is part of a separate evolutionary lineage, which differs in the morphology of the skull. The ungulates of the various levels in Gran Dolina show a fauna with few changes since the late Early Pleistocene. There are no indications that glaciations greatly influenced the composition of the Spanish faunas.