The results of investigations on genetics and systematics of the moose are presented. New data from our own research and data from the literature on morphological variability, genetics, ecological and ethological features of the modern moose are discussed. Numerous data testify that differentiation among modern Alces has reached a specific level and they divided into two species: European moose Alces alces L. inhabiting Europe, Ural, and Western Siberia and American moose A. americanus Clinton inhabiting North America, Eastern Siberia, and the Far East. These species differ in chromosome numbers (European moose has 2n=68, American moose has 2n=70), as well as in some eco-ethological features. In light of new data a revision of the systematics of the moose is carried out, and questions on phylogeny are considered.