To test the sexual dimorphic characters, two almost complete skeletons of E. antiquus of late Middle Pleistocene age, which were found in the lacustrine deposit of Grotte Santo Stefano near Viterbo (Central Italy), were examined. Besides dimorphic characters shown in skull, tusks and pelvic morphology, there is some information about the differences between male and female of E. (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus in the molar, atlas, epistropheus, carpal and metacarpal bone morphology, and in the biometry. The characters studied seem to indicate that specimens ‘A’ and ‘B’ may be considered as female and male individuals, respectively. For the moment however, the differences found between the two specimens cannot be considered conclusive.

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Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam

M.R. Palombo, & P. Villa. (2003). Sexually dimorphic characters of Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus from Grotte Santo Stefano (Viterbo, Central Italy). Deinsea, 9(1), 293–316.