The studies on DNA in mammoth in comparison with extant elephants (fragments of the loci 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and cytochrome b) are reviewed. Based on these data, genetic diversity of mammoth and intraspecific and interspecific genetic differentiation of Mammuthus primigenius, Loxodonta africana, Elephas maximus, and Mammut americanus are considered. Apparently, the lineages of mammoth and living elephants diverged simultaneously from a common ancestor, the greater morphological similarity between the Asian elephant and mammoth is a result of parallel evolution. Significance of genetic data for phylogenetic reconstruction is considered.