Proboscideans of African origins dispersed towards Western Europe during two distinct periods: browsing forms did so between some 18.5 and 14 Ma and grazers between some 2.7 and 0.8 Ma ago. The earlier dispersals occurred when Western Europe had a warmer and less seasonal climate than today, the later dispersals occurred at moments of fundamental global climatic change when open landscapes increased in Europe. Between 8 and 6 Ma ago, the changing environment caused African Proboscidea to adapt to grazing. It is this adaptation that allowed them to enter again Western Europe.

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Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam

J. van der Made, & A.V. Mazo. (2003). Proboscidean dispersals from Africa towards Western Europe. Deinsea, 9(1), 437–452.