Proboscidean dispersals from Africa towards Western Europe
Deinsea , Volume 9 - Issue 1 p. 437- 452
Proboscideans of African origins dispersed towards Western Europe during two distinct periods: browsing forms did so between some 18.5 and 14 Ma and grazers between some 2.7 and 0.8 Ma ago. The earlier dispersals occurred when Western Europe had a warmer and less seasonal climate than today, the later dispersals occurred at moments of fundamental global climatic change when open landscapes increased in Europe. Between 8 and 6 Ma ago, the changing environment caused African Proboscidea to adapt to grazing. It is this adaptation that allowed them to enter again Western Europe.