This paper gives a review of the Leptopeltaceae, a family of the Ascomycetes belonging to the Dothiorales. The genus Pycnothyrium Diedicke is fully discussed as member of the family. It is characterized by superficial or subcuticular, shieldlike ascomata and by hyaline ascospores, mostly fourcelled when ripe. The genus names Dothithyriella v. Hohn., Leptopeltella v. Hohn., Leptopeltina Petr., Leptopeltinella Petr., Moesziella Petr, and Stigmastoma Bat. & Maia are considered as synonyms of Pycnothyrium. All the four species placed in the genus are saprophytic fungi growing on dead stems of ferns and dicotyledons. Microthyrium lunariae Fuck, has twocelled ascospores and is placed in the genus Leptopeltopsis Petr. The genus Seynesiospora Bat. must be placed in the synonymy of Cyclotheca Theiss. & Syd. The type species is identical with Cyclotheca iochromatis (Rehm) v. Arx.