The new genus Vermeulenia is separated from the collective genus Orchis to accomodate the section Labellointegrae. It includes the species V. papilionacea, V. caspia, V. saccata. V. chlorolica, and V. fedtschenkoi, the transfer of which is validated. In addition to morphological differences, the new genus is characterized by smaller chromosomes and the basic chromosome number x = 8. The chromosome number 2n = 32 is confirmed from Italian material of V. papilionacea.