Microorganisms are used for gaining a better insight into the structure of the woody cell wall. For obtaining maximal effects from this branch of studies, microorganisms also need to be studied more intensively. Examples are given where microorganisms and cellulase preparations degraded the woody cell wall: differences in soft rot attack in Angiosperm and Gymnosperm fibre walls; soft rot attack in wood which was used in Teredo tests in coastal waters; the influence of ponding and immersion in cellulase preparations. It is proposed that the mucous layer around the hyphae of Chaetomium globosum and other soft rot fungi plays a role in producing the geometrical cavities. It was found that bacteria attacking ponded wood destroy the very thick membrane of the half bordered pit-pair to a considerable degree, leaving a thin membrane which is considered to be the S2 layer of the parenchyma cell wall. Bacteria also remove the membranes of the bordered pit pairs, most probably by digesting the margo, leaving the torus free to float away. The cellulase preparations are able to digest the margofibrils of the bordered pits.