Was ist Orchis latifolia L.?
Acta botanica neerlandica , Volume 25 - Issue 5 p. 371- 379
Linnaeus described in 1745 from Öland three dactylorchids named later by him Orchis latifolia (now O. sambucina), O. maculata and O. incarnata. He forgot in his later books the third one and described in his Species Plantarum(1753) only O. latifolia and O. maculata. According to the prolog, diagnosis and description Linnaeus’ O. latifolia (the first plant of Öland) has been described in Flora Suecica, ed. 2 (1755) as O. sambucina. This is a synonym of his (yellowflowering) O. latifolia. The Synonyms which were used for O. latifolia by Linnaeus are now named Dactylorhiza incarnata and D. praetermissa. The latifolia-specimen in Linnaeus’ herbarium is in a bad state and it misses the tubers. As far as can be judged this specimen is neither sambucina nor majalis and possibly a hybrid of O. incarnata. There is no element which indicates to O. majalis, a species missing in Öland and in the neighbourhood of Stockholm and Uppsala, where Linnaeus lived, The name O. latifolia L. and also its synonym Dactylorhiza latifolia (L.) Soö must be rejected because it has widely and persistently been used for a taxon (= O. majalis) not including its type (See Taxon, vol, 24, p. 226. art. 69, adopted in 1975, Leningrad).
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