Seed-coat development in Ranunculus sceleratus L. has been studied by electron microscopy. Three layers developed from the single integument. The outer epidermis consisted of elongated and flattened cells that were always well attached to each other. The cells were characterized by thin walls, the presence of chloroplasts and small vacuoles. The cells of the middle layer were originally closely packed. Gradually, extensive intercellular spaces were formed. The cells of the inner epidermis elongated initially, until they became cubic and developed a thick wall with numerous wall ingrowths at the side bordering the nucellus. Thus, they give rise to a mechanical layer protecting the inner part of the seed. The elongation of cells, the thickening of cell walls, the formation of wall ridges, and the formation of intercellular spaces each coincided with characteristic configurations of microtubules. Plasmodesmata were originally found between all cells of the integument but their number decreased drastically during development, especially between the three developing seed-coat layers. Well-differentiated chloro-amyloplasts, present in all cells of the developing seed-coat, pointed to autotrophy during development. Maturation eventually led to the disappearance of cytoplasm in all cells, the compression of the cells of the outer epidermis and middle layers, and the formation of a mechanical layer from the inner epidermis.

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Acta botanica neerlandica

CC BY 3.0 NL ("Naamsvermelding")

Koninklijke Nederlandse Botanische Vereniging

X. Xuhan, & A.A.M. van Lammeren. (1994). The ultrastructure of seed coat development in Ranunculus sceleratus. Acta botanica neerlandica, 43(1), 27–37.