Alstroemeria is an important ornamental crop grown in The Netherlands for cut flowers. The Alstroemeria varieties are developed by breeding companies using interspecific crosses. The natural habitat of Alstroemeria species is South America, mainly Chile and Brazil. During interspecific hybridization, crossing barriers were found between Chilean and Brazilean species, and among Chilean species. A normal sexual reproduction process in Alstroemeria in compatible crosses in comparison with the abnormalities found in incompatible crosses was presented. Results from a diallel cross revealed that the crossing barriers are mainly of a post-fertilization nature, although inhibition of pollen tubes in the style is also found.