In vitro culture is an experimental tool for fundamental studies as well as for applied purposes such as plant breeding or genetic transformation. Plant tissues can be maintained in culture and under defined conditions it is possible to demonstrate that individual cells are totipotent and have the capacity to regenerate new plants. Applications of in vitro techniques are now well established for many dicotyledonous species, but monocotyledonous species are more difficult to culture in vitro and the development of efficient regeneration systems has been slower. However, in recent years considerable progress has been made and meanwhile grass cell cultures are being used as experimental and practical tools.