In southern Twente (eastern Netherlands) and neighbouring parts of Germany, 22 territories of Goshawks were occupied in 1996, in which 17 pairs started to breed. Only 9 pairs were successful, raising 22 fledglings (Table 1). Most Goshawks were in adult plumage (2nd year or older), more so in females (95%, N=19) than in males (80%, N=10)(Table 2). Human persecution is still widespread in this part of the country.