The „Beekbergerwoud”, an ancient and famous wood of about 385 acres, was cut down in 1870 and 1871, and the peat-soil was reclaimed for pasture. This peat lies to the west of the valley of the river IJsel on the Lower Terrace, from two to five kilometres (i1/* to 3 miles) from the glacial ridge of the „Veluwe”. This glacial ridge consists of preglacial deposits pushed up by the Risz-ice. Palynological and stratigraphic examination of the peat where it is thickest, shows that it rests on a stratum of loam deposited during the Preboreal period, and that the peat itself was formed in eutrophic water during the Boreal period. By the end of the Boreal period the lake had become colonised by fen on which arose a carrwood, rich in alder. This wood encroached on the surrounding sand, and was the origin of the „Beekbergerwoud”. It originated c. 8000 years ago. The deposits above the mid-atlantic are missing, probably owing to peat-digging before and during the reclamation. The above mentioned sand, which is less or more gravelly, is found at many points between the surface peat and the underlying loam. It has been shown that this sand was probably carried from the glacial ridge, and that the neighbouring river Ysel had nothing to do with its deposition. The eutrophic ground-water, which had a high level owing to the neighbourhood of the ,,Veluwe” favoured peat-formation. During the reclamation a prehistoric forest layer was found about seven feet below the surface, buried under layers of sand. In historical sources first mention of the „Beekbergerwoud” is made in an assessment-list of 1648. The wood belonged to the community of the Lierdermarck. Many data have been collected about the former exploitation of the wood. Regularly trees were cut down (alder and ash and on higher ground oak and beech). Much wood was used for charcoalburning. Trees were planted too, and peat was dug. The boggy wood could only be entered when the ground was frozen. The rich flora of the wood was studied by Wttewaal in 1833, 1834 and 1835, and in 1846 by Molkenboer (mosses).