Four roads in the province of Drenthe were (partly) monitored for bird casualties during 1990 through 1992, with some additions for 1993 (Fig. I). Seventeen species or species groups were found as victims of traffic (Table 1), the smaller passerines not included (the latter often disregarded). Variations in frequency of casualties are thought to reflect local differences in habitat, viz. nearby presence of water (ducks, gulls), presence of pre-roost gatherings (gulls) and width of roadsides (attractive for rodents, especially Common Vole, and consequently a high incidence of casualties among vole-eaters like Grey Heron, Common Buzzard, Kestrel and owls)(Figs. 2a-j). Vole-eaters were especially vulnerable during the winter months, whereas ducks, galliformes, waders and (near)passerines were most often found in summer (Table I). Most casualties were encountered along the busiest road, the A28 (Fig. 1, Table 2). It is estimated that in Drenthe alone at least 400 owls, particularly Long-eared Owl and Barn Owl, fall victim to traffic each year.