A theoretical approach to the problems concerning the relations between plants and their environment, methodically allied with the discipline of cybernetics and based on researches made into plant succession. Three fundamental relations of universal character have been distinguished, the third of which is showing the basic connection between pattern and process. The three basic relations also provide an approach to the effects of concentration and dispersion in space and time, which phenomena are considered as to be of dominant importance with regard to pattern and process. The relations associated with concentration and dispersion on their turn have proved to be an useful expedient for getting a better understanding of the ecological relations in border areas, which have been divided in two main types of boundaries, respectively described as “limes convergens” (ecotone) and “limes divergens” (ecocline). Many examples are given with regard to the application of the theory.