The effects of grazing on butterflies are poorly known. The results of five years of monitoring in grazed and ungrazed calcareous dune areas are discussed. Grazing appears beneficial for species of open vegetation, such as the Small Copper ( Lycaena phlaeas), the Brown Argus ( Aricia agestis), the Queen of Spain Fritillary ( (Issoria lathonia), the Grayling (Hipparchia semele) I and, possibly, the Grizzled Skipper (Pyrgus malvae). No clear negative impacts of grazing were found. However, the results suggest that a lower stocking rate than usually applied could enhance the diversity of the butterfly community as a whole.