The Glanville Fritillary (Melitaea cinxia) is a characteristic species of dry grasslands that have a varied structure and abundance of flowers. It has had no permanent populations in the Netherlands since the early 1990s. However, colonisation by individuals from neighbouring populations in Belgium may lead to recovery. This article describes the life cycle of the Glanville Fritillary and its habitat requirements, with their implications for conservation measures. We have recently assessed the potential of its former range for colonisation. As the Sint Pietersberg is only a few kilometres from the source population at Thier de Lanaye, and potential habitat is available, we judged it to be the most promising location. Two butterflies were sighted there in 2004 and a search revealed a larval nest, giving hope for a spontaneous re-establishment of this species as a resident in the future. An overview is given of ongoing initiatives to encourage the recolonisation of Limburg by this endangered species.