Recently, more precise knowledge of primary copper mining has emerged from investigations of two well-preserved mines from the Eneolithic (Chalcolithic) period in the Balkans, viz. Rudna Glava in North-East Yugoslavia (JOVANOVIC, OTTAWAY, 1976) and Ai Bunar in South Bulgaria (CHERNIH, 1975). Despite of the lack of C-14 dates from both mines, one could say that Rudna Glava dates to the middle or second half of the fourth millenium B.C. in comparison with the end of the fourth millenium at Ai Bunar (JOVANOVIC, OTTAWAY, 1976). The oldest copper mining ought to be understood as a specialized activity, whose aim was to supply raw material for the earliest copper industry. Mining was generally based on permanent increase in geological-mineralogical knowledge of the prehistoric populations of Europe. It was only the initial stage of such experience, but quite enough to provide raw materials for flint and stone industries during the non-metallic periods of prehistory.