In studying hand-axe material from Southern Limburg one is being faced with the essential question as to how old these implements are. The problem is that hand-axes are clearly not restricted in time to the Lower or Middle Paleolithic. They also occur in much younger periods – notably in the Neolithic – in typologically the same forms as in the Paleolithic. It is clear that this can lead to problems in Southern Limburg, with its Neolithic flint-mining industry and associated sites rich in flint finds. In addition, as far as I know almost no finds have been collected in situ in this region. The question is therefore whether it is possible to definitively ascribe isolated finds to the Paleolithic or to younger periods, on the basis of criteria other than typological or geological. Here an attempt is made in this direction, on the basis of natural surface modifications present on these flints. This method evidently does not work really satisfactorily for this region: a fairly large group of finds (those with white patina and wind-gloss) cannot be ascribed to any particular period With certainty.