An account is given of the development of odonatology in the Far East with special reference to Japan. Knowledge of dragonflies has apparently existed since very early times in these countries. Japanese nature lovers, including children, had a good knowledge of these insects and made use of them in the daily life. Modern biology in Japan began with Siebold in about 1830, and Japanese odonatology, as a modem science, dates from 1883 when SELYS-LONGCHAMPS published his “Les Odonates du Japon”. Among that of Far Eastern countries, the fauna of Japan has been worked out best; the known odonate species in Japan total 180, while, in China, there may be 100 species in the family Gomphidae alone. As shown by the Odonata in recent years, nature conservation is an urgent need in Japan. It is believed that applied entomology in China started long before the Christian era. The Chinese had a good knowledge of sericulture, apiculture and insect pests from very early times.