Volcanic events during the middle Pleistocene blocked the Jordan Rift at the frontier between Israel and the Lebanon. South of it, in the Hula Lake area, four endemic subspecies of dragonflies evolved, presumably during and after the Wiirm. They are all subspecies to Ethiopian species. North of the barrier evolved Calopteryx hyalina Martin, a taxon of uncertain status. The two endemic Anisoptera of Lake Hula (Rhyothemis semihyalina syriaca Selys and Urothemis edwardsi hulae ssp.n.) are probably extinct now, while the Zygoptera (Pseudagrion torridum hulae Dumont and P. sublacteum mortoni Ris & Schmidt) are still in existence.


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Societas Internationalis Odonatologica

H.J. Dumont. (1975). Endemic dragonflies of Late Pleistocene age of the Hula Lake area (northern Israel), with notes on the Calopterygidae of the rivers Jordan (Israel, Jordan) and Litani (The Lebanon), and description of Urothemis edwardsi hulae subspec. nov. (Libellulidae). Odonatologica, 4(1), 1–9.