A brief taxonomic history of the Gomphidae is given, along with an explanation of the methodology used to develop the new classification. The higher classification of the Anisoptera is reviewed and a key to superfamilies presented in which the Gomphoidea and Petaluroidea are formally recognized. Keys to the subfamilies and tribes of Gomphidae are given, followed by detailed tribal descriptions, and verification and classification tables. Gomphine classification is revised as follows (in alphabetical order): GOMPHOIDEA superfam. n.: Gomphidae: Austrogomphinae subfam. n.: (Archaeogomphini trib. n.): Archaeogomphus, Austroarchaeogomphus subgen. n. [type A. infans Ris]; (Austrogomphini trib. n.): Antipodogomphus, Austroepigomphus, Austrogomphus: (Cyanogomphini trib. n.): Agriogomphus. Cy. anogumphus; (Lestinogomphini trib. n.): Lestinogomphus: — Epigomphinae comb, n.: (Epigomphini comb, n.): Epigomphus, £ugomp/iu.s,' (L.eptogomphini trib. n.): Africogomphus, Heliogomphus, Leptogomphus; (Macrogomphini trib. a): Macrogomphus. Eumacrogomphus subgen. n. [type M. quadratus Selys]; (Microgomphini trib. a): Microgomphus; – Gomphinae comb, a: (Anisogomphini trib. a): Anisogomphus, Labrogomphus, Merogomphus, Notogomphus; (cyclogomphini trib. a): Anormogomphus, Burmagomphus, Cyclogomphus, Platygomphus; (Gomphini trib. a): Anatogomphurus subgen. n. [type Dromogomphus, Gastrogomphus, Gomphurus, Gomphus, Gomphus personatus Selys], Arigomphus, Phanogomphus subgen. n. [type Gomphus minutus Rambur], Shaogomphus, Sienogomphurus subgen. n. [type Gomphus consanguis Selys], Stylurus; (Neurogomphini trib. a): Neurogomphus; : — Hageniinae;. (Hageniini): Hagenius. Hagenoides subgen. n. [type 5. alexanderi Chao], Pseudohagenius subgen. n. [type H. deflexus Chao], Sieholdius; — Lindeniinae comb, a: (Gomphoidini comb, a): Gomphoides, Aphylla, Peruviogomphus, Phyllocycla, Phyllogomphoides; (Lindeniini comb. n.); Africogomphidia subgen. n. [type Diastatomma quarrei Schouteden], Austrictinogomphus, Cacoides, Cinitogomphus, Diastatomma, Gomphidia, Gomphidictinus. Ictinogomphus, Indictinogomphus, Lindenia, Mitragomphus, Sinictinogomphus, Sinogomphidia subgen. n. [type Gomphidia kruegeri Martin]; (Progomphini trib. n.): Alloprogomphus subgen. n. [type P. complicatus Selys], Archaeoprogomphus subgen. n. [type P. geijskesi Needham], Eoprogomphus subgen. n. [type P. tibialis Belle], Neaprogomphus subgen. n. [type D. obscurum Rambur], Progomphus; (Zonophorini trib. n.): Desmogomphus, Diaphlebia, Perigomphus, Zonophora: — Octogomphinae comb, n.: (Hemigoraphini trib. n.): Armagomphus subgen. n. [type A. armiger Tillyard], Eogomphus, Hemigomphus, Neogomphus, Sinogomphus; (Octogomphini comb, n.): Davidius, Dubitogomphus, Lanthus, Paralanthus subgen. n. [type Davidius malloryi Fraser], Octogomphus; (Trigomphini trib. n.): Fukienogomphus, Stylogomphus, Trigomphus; — Onychogomphinae comb, n.: (Crenigomphini trib. n.): Crenigomphus, Paragomphus; (Onychogomphini comb, n.): Acrogomphus, Amphigomphus, Cornigomphus, Davidioides, Erpetogomphus. Lamelligomphus, Megalogomphus, Nepogomphoides, Nihonogomphus, Nepogomphus, Nychogomphus subgen. n. [type Onychogomphus geometricus Selys], Onychogomphus, Ophiogomphus, Ophionuroides subgen. n, [type O. anomalus Harvey], Ophionurus subgen. n. [type O. alleghaniensis Carle], Perissogomphus, Phaenandrogomphus, Tragogomphus; — Phyllogomphinae subfam. n.: (Phyllogomphini trib. n.): Ceratogomphus, Isomma, Phyllogomphus.