Recent records of migratory H. ephippiger in Africa established a relation between the mass movements of this species and good monsoonal rains between the southern fringe of the Sahara and the Guinea Savannah. H. ephippiger thus offers an aquatic equivalent to the mass-migration of african locusts. Colonies fringing the sea are established in the western Mediterranean, but appear not to last inland. In the warmer eastern Mediterranean, permanent colonies are more frequent.