A. axine sp. n. (holotype <J: Ecuador, Napo Prov., Primavera, International Odonata Research Institute (IORI), Gainesville, Florida, USA) is described from 13 <5, all from Napo Prov., lowland Amazonian Ecuador. The species is most similar to A. dorsale (Burmeister) and A. foliaceum (Sjöstedt), but $ < axine are easily recognized by the ax-head shape of the cerci in lateral view. These 3 spp. are considered to be a monophyletic group, the "true” Aeolagrion, which probably deserves generic status because of the characteristic $ cerci and $ meskatepisternum. Remarks on other "Aeolagrion ’’ are included.