A review of all names associated with the Dicteriadidae (corrected spelling for Dicteriastidae) shows that only 2 genera, each monotypic, are valid. A study of over 125 specimens revealed remarkable intraspecific variability in venational characters formerly considered stable and conservative. The valid species are Dicterias atrosanguinea Sel. and Heliocharis amazona Sel. Neocharis, Chantopteryx, and Cyanocharis are new synonyms of Heliocharis. Heliocharis braziliensis Hag.. H. libera Sel., Cyanocharis valga Needham, and Neocharis cothurnata Foerster are new synonyms of Heliocharis amazona. Notes on biology and an annotated bibliography are included.