Exuviae of 11 spp., referable to 10 genera, are described and illustrated. The larval type of Gomphoides Sel. and Peruviogomphus Klots is determined by reared individuals. The species identification of most of the exuviae is based on reared larvae. A key to the ultimate larval instars of the neotropical gomphid genera is constructed. Tibiagomphus gen.n. is erected for Cyanogomphus uncatus Fraser (type-species) and C. noval Rodrigues.