Larvae of Amphipteryx longicaudata Gonztilez-Soriano and Amphipteryx sp. from Mexico, are described and compared to the genera Devadatta, Pentaphlebia, Philoganga Rimanella, and Diphlebia. Ecological and biogeographical comments are provided. A new reclassification of Amphipterygidae and Diphlebiidae based upon larval characters is proposed. The Amphipterygidae is redefined and is divided into 2 subfamilies: Amphipteryginae ( Amphipteryx and Devadatta) and Pentaphlebiinae sfara.n. (Pentaphlebia and Rimanella); these 4 genera share a notable apomorphic character unique among all odonates: the gill tufts of the larvae. On the other hand, Diphlebia, Philoganga and Lestoidea are put together in the Diphlebiidae; they lack the gill tufts and exhibit many other features in common which are not shared with the Amphipterygidae (s. str.). The taxon Rimanellidae is suppressed. Brief diagnoses for the new groupings and detailed illustrations of the larvae and of adult wings are also given.