Austropetaliid taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography are reviewed, and keys and descriptions to subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species provided. Behavioral and ecological information is also summarized. Classification of the Austropetaliidae is revised as follows: Archipetaliinae subfam. n.: (Archipetaliini trib. n.): Archipetalia auriculata Tillyard; Austropetaliinae subfam. n.: (Austropetaliini trib. n.); Austropetalia patricia (Tillyard), incl. A. patricia, and A. victoria sp.n. (holotype i: Australia, Mt. Kosciusko, 12-XII-1931); Hypopetaliinae subfam. n.: (Hypopetaliini trib. n.); Hypopetalia pestilens McLachlan; Eurypetaliinae subfam. n.: (Rheopetaliini trib, n ): Rheopetalia gen n. [type R. rex sp. n. (holotype 6: Chile, Puente Los Morongos, 2-1- -1992)], incl. Phyllopetalia a. apicalis Selys, and P. apicalis decorata McLachlan in Selys; Odontopetaliagen. n. [type P. apollo Selys]; (Eurypetaliini trib. n.): Eurypetalia gen n. [type E. altarensis sp. n. (holotype 6: Chile, Estero de Yerba loca along La Leonera, 4-XI-1995)], incl. ( Crenopetalia subgen. n.) [type E. excrescens sp. n. (holotype 3: Chile, Puente Los Morongos, 10-XII-1993); Ophiopetalia gen n. [type O. diana sp. n. (holotype 3: Chile, Antillanca, 27-XII-1992)], incl. P. pudu Dunkle, O. auragaster sp. n. (holotype <J: Chile, Estero de Yerba loca, XII-1988), and O. araucana sp. n. (holotype 3: Chile, Piedra del Aguila, 11-XI-1995); and Phyllopetalia stictica Selys.