Although the genus Phyllomacromia Selys, 1878 has for over 40 years generally been considered synonymous with Macromia, a recent study of the male secondary genitalia and caudal appendages has shown these genera to be distinct. They differ markedly in the morphology of the penis, genital ligula, and epiproct, and typically also in that of the cerci and posterior hamules. The forms of the penis and genital ligula of Phyllomacromia are more similar to those of Epophthalmia than to Macromia, while Macromia most closely resembles Didymops in these characteristics. Phyllomacromia probably includes all the African species recently attributed to Macromia.