The descriptive information available on the larvae of the Australian Gomphidae is summarized. On the evidence of larval characters it is suggested that Odontogomphus longipositor Watson should provisionally be placed in the subgenus Zephyrogomphus of the genus Austrogomphus. The larvae of Ictinogomphus dobsoni, Hemigomphus comitatus, H. coloola, H. theischingeri, Antipodogomphus hodgkini, Austrogomphus arbustorum, A. melaleucae, A. amphiclitus, A. bifurcatus and A. longipositor are described, most of them also figured, for the first time; the larvae of the remaining spp. are redescribed and illustrated in similar detail.