The larva is described and illustrated from four ultimate instar exuviae (2 ? reared) and from a younger larva, all from Venezuela. Main characters are a pointed epiproct and spinous mesial carinae of paraprocts. There is some general similarity with larvae of Boyeria McL., but the latter have angled occipital lobes, longer labium and, in some species, a bifid epiproct. Penis is strikingly similar in Allopetalia and Boyeria, the “cornua” coming closer to those found in Gomphaeschna Sel. than to the “flagella” as found in the brachytrine Spinaeschna Theisch. and in the austropetaliine Rheopetalia Carle. – The “pryeri-group” of Oligoaeschna Sel. is adscribed to Gomphaeschnata LOHMANN (1996, Ent. Z., Essen 106: 209-252), while the “poeciloptera-group” is considered a representative of the archaic Gynacanthini (Aeshnata). Biogeographical problems of Anisoptera, especially those of Gomphaeschnini and Gynacanthini, and of Euphaeida (Zygoptera) are discussed, considering the Pangaea-model and panbiogeographic criteria. Maps and a glossary of some panbiogeographic terms are added.