Many Phyllomacromia spp. appear to be more variable than was hitherto realised. This has lead to the description of paler and darker forms as distinct spp. Fortunately, the genus is rich in morphological characters in both sexes, P. melania and P. overlaeti were described from $ 5 and both have been allied with non-conspecific 3 3, leading to great confusion. P. melania is the $ of the sp. known as P. fimicularia rather than that of P. contumax, while P. overlaeti matches P. subtropicalis and not P. schoutedeni. With the identity of these $ ? clarified and the variation considered, many synonyms arise; P. funicularia, P. bredoi and P. martorelli are synonyms of P. melania; P. biflava, P. nyanzana, P. reginae, P. halei and P. leoni of P. contumax; P. onerata and P. clymene of P. monoceros; and P. subtropicalis, P. paludosa and P. royi of P. overlaeti. P. paludis is not synonymous with P. contumax but with P. paula. The taxonomy of this large genus is briefly discussed and a new species grouping is proposed.