The odon. fauna of S. Ural (Russia), as known from literature data and new collections, is composed of 59 spp. Coenagrion ecornutum, Ischnura pumilio, Somatochlora graeseri and Selysiothemis nigra are first records for S. Ural; the presence of Ischnura aralensis Haritonov, 1979 (syn. I. haritonovi Dumont, 1997), Aeshna cyanea, Anax imperator and Libellula depressa is confirmed, but that of Pyrrhosoma nymphula, Sympecma fusca, Cordulegaster boltonii and Libellula fulva is not. Aeshna undulata Bartenev, 1909 is a probable synonym of A. juncea Linnaeus, 1758. /. aralensis, C. ecornutum, Enallagma cyathigerum risi and S. graeseri were found W as well as E of the Ural River, and thus are part of the fauna of Europe. Several western spp. reach their limit of eastward extent in S. Ural and, conversely, several eastern (Siberian) spp. reach their limit of westward extent there too. The range of I. aralensis is discussed in the light of the contractions and expansions of the Caspian-Aral lakes during the Late Pleistocene. The current disjunct positions of its colonies is understood as the result of the present phase of aridity in middle Asia.