New records of Epiophlebia laidlawi Tillyard in Bhutan, with notes on its biology, ecology, distribution, zoogeography and threat status (Anisozygoptera: Epiophlebiidae)
Odonatologica , Volume 38 - Issue 3 p. 203- 215
E. laidlawi larvae were found for the first time in Bhutan, collected in 5 streams in W and central parts of the country, at altitudes 2350-2885 m a.s.l. The habitats and larval development stages are described, and a brief overview is presented on the biology, ecology and known distribution in Bhutan, India and Nepal. The sp. inhabits fast running mountain streams in Himalayan broadleaf and subtropical pine forests at an altitude of 1300-2885 m a.s.1. The palaeobiogeographical history of the fossil Epiophlebiidae and Stenophlebiidae and of the 2 extant Epiophlebia spp. is discussed. E. laidlawi is a relict sp., living in headwaters of pristine mountain forests. It is endangered because of human influences, such as deforestation, provision of water power, erosion and other factors. The best protection would be ensured by the conservation of specific habitats in vast protected areas. This has at least partly been put into action in Nepal.
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T. Brockhaus, & A. Hartmann. (2009). New records of Epiophlebia laidlawi Tillyard in Bhutan, with notes on its biology, ecology, distribution, zoogeography and threat status (Anisozygoptera: Epiophlebiidae). Odonatologica, 38(3), 203–215.
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