The keys presented are based on the characters of Italian species for the sole purpose of species identification. Consequently, key divisions do not necessarly reflect taxonomic affinities between species. Genera have expressly not been incorporated because these sometimes include species that are somewhat dissimilar one from another. The following species are not included in the key: Calopteryx xanthostoma (Charp., 1825), which was considered as a subspecies of C. splendens (Harris, 1782) until Dumont’s work (1972), its distribution in Italy is limited to the Liguria Region. Recent finds are lacking. Larvae of Italian populations have not yet been described. Coenagrion ornatum (Selys, 1850), which was gathered once in 1951 at one site only in the Apulia Region. Larvae of Italian population unknown. Orthetrum nitidinerve (Selys, 1841), which was been found in Sicily and Sardinia only and is very rare. North African larvae have been described by Nielsen (1955) who did not absolutely ascribe them to said species. Other specimens recently gathered as larvae in Italy, have not yet been described. Brachythemis leucosticta (Burm., 1839), in Italy only one adult captured in Sardinia and one spotting in Sicily. Key-illustrating figures are all originals drawn from examples of Italian fauna except where otherwise specified.