Conus ventricosus Gmelin, 1791, is considered an undeterminable species based on a hardly recognizable figure without a locality. The authors propose to conserve the name of C. mediterraneus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. The distribution, ecology, shell morphology, embryology and radula of C. mediterraneus and G. guinaicus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792, were studied, and it is concluded that they represent two distinct species, although very similar in conchological characters.