Inferences were made on causes of death from the circumstances under which dead Arianta arbustorum or its empty shells were found. The causes included water, avalanches, heat, drought and predation by birds and mammals. In captivity A. arbustorum was accepted as prey by mammals and invertebrates. Population density in cages had a slightly depressing effect on both fecundity and growth, suggesting self-regulation.


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Nederlandse Malacologische Vereniging

Annekäti Reichardt, Christian Raboud, Hans Burla, & Bruno Baur. (1985). Causes of death and possible regulatory processes in Arianta arbustorum (L., 1758) (Pulmonata, Helicidae). Basteria, 49(1/3), 37–46.