After excavations and sand drift, fossil shells of landand freshwater-molluscs were found in the dunes between Noordwijk and Zandvoort in the western part of The Netherlands. Most remarkable was the presence of a forest fauna in an old soil with 36 land species, including Spermodea lamellata, Merdigera obscura and Cochlodina laminata. These species lived here about 1100 years ago, outside their modern range.

landsnails, Spermodea lamellata, Merdigera obscura, Cochlodina laminata, dunes, forest fauna, late Holocene, The Netherlands.
Basteria

CC BY-NC 4.0 NL ("Naamsvermelding-NietCommercieel")

Nederlandse Malacologische Vereniging

Wim J. Kuijper. (2016). A late Holocene forest fauna with Spermodea lamellata, Merdigera obscura and Cochlodina laminata in the dunes of Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Basteria, 80(4/6), 195–200.