After settlement of a territorial pair in southern Limburg in 2014, the first breeding attempt of Red Kites was registered in 2015. In 2015-17 a total of five territories were recorded, in which four breeding attempts were made, only one of which was successful (two fledglings). Another two fledglings were added from a local nest that had fallen down; two out of three chicks survived and were raised in a rehabilitation centre (and released on 27 August 2017). At least one failure was due to avian predation. Except for one 2-cy male all breeding birds were in adult plumage. Given poor reproduction so far (as in the rest of The Netherlands where breeding numbers are slightly increasing), it seems likely that most recruits in southern Limburg came from the thriving breeding population in eastern Belgium. The finding of a dying Red Kite in southern Limburg in late August 2016, ringed as a nestling in 2015 in eastern Belgium, seems to support this scenario. Potential bottlenecks for further increase in The Netherlands are peace and quiet in the countryside (at danger from forestry, hunting and recreation), food supply and – especially – poisoning incidents. Out of 55 authopsied Red Kites in The Netherlands in 1975-99, at least 45 had died from poisoning.