On the Isle of May between 1986 and 1996, the average adult survival of Shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis was 82.1%, Common Guillemots Uria aalge 95.2%, Razorbills Alca torda 90.5%, Puffins Fratercula arctica 91.6% and Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla 88.2%. Shags, Razorbills and Puffins all had a single year of exceptionally low survival but these years did not coincide. In contrast, Kittiwake survival declined significantly over the period and there was evidence that substantial non-breeding occurred in several years. Breeding success of Kittiwakes also declined, which gives rise to concern for its future status. Given a high enough level of resighting, return rates (the proportion of birds known to be alive one year that were seen the next year) on a year-by-year basis provide a reasonable indication of relative changes in adult survival.

Atlantic seabirds

CC BY 3.0 NL ("Naamsvermelding")

Nederlandse Zeevogelgroep

M.P. Harris, S. Wanless, & P. Rothery. (2000). Adult survival rates of Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Common Guillemot Uria aalge, Razorbill Alca torda, Puffin Fratercula arctica and Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla on the Isle of May 1986-96. Atlantic seabirds, 2(3/4), 133–150.