The populations of breeding Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus. Herring Gull Larus argentatus and Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus on Skomer Island have all changed dramatically since the island became a National Nature Reserve in 1959. The role of human activities in these changes is marked and includes bird protection and other conservation measures, reduction in numbers by culling, and changes in food availability. Gulls and other seabirds have been well-studied on Skomer and population trends are considered in relation to adult survival rates, annual productivity and other factors.